This bone sample was printed with human stem cells using human blood plasma as...
This bone sample was printed with human stem cells using human blood plasma as a nutrient-rich ‘bio-ink’ with the addition of a calcium phosphate bone cement as a structure-supporting material, plus plant- and algae-sourced methylcellullose and alginate added to increase the viscosity of this bio-ink, making it suitable for use in low gravity conditions.
Source: ESA – SJM Photography

3D printing skin, bones on way to Mars

An ESA project has produced its first bioprinted skin and bone samples. The 3D printing human tissue could help keep astronauts healthy all the way to Mars.

3D printing human tissue could help keep astronauts healthy all the way to Mars. An ESA project has produced its first bioprinted skin and bone samples. These state-of-the-art samples were prepared by scientists from the University Hospital of Dresden Technical University (TUD), part of the project consortium together with OHB System AG as the prime contractor, and life sciences specialist Blue Horizon. “Skin cells can be bioprinted using human blood plasma as a nutrient-rich ‘bio-ink’ – which would be easily accessible from the mission crewmembers,” comments Nieves Cubo from TUD.

Photo
Bioprinted human skin sample.
Source: ESA – SJM Photography

“However, plasma has a highly fluid consistency, making it difficult to work with in altered gravitational conditions. We therefore developed a modified recipe by adding methylcellullose and alginate to increase the viscosity of the substrate. Astronauts could obtain these substances from plants and algae respectively, a feasible solution for a self-contained space expedition. Producing the bone sample involved printing human stem cells with a similar bio-ink composition, with the addition of a calcium phosphate bone cement as a structure-supporting material, which is subsequently absorbed during the growth phase,” Cubo said.

To prove that the bioprinting technique was transferable to space, printing of both the skin and bone samples took place upside down. With prolonged access to weightlessness impractical, the challenge of such ‘minus 1 G’ testing represented the next best option. The samples represent the first steps in an ambitious end-to-end roadmap to make 3D bioprinting practical for space. The project is looking into the kind of onboard facilities that would be required, in terms of equipment, surgical rooms and sterile environments, as well as the ability to create more complex tissues for transplants – culminating ultimately in the printing of entire internal organs. 

Photo
Bioprinted bone seen growing.
Source: University Hospital of Dresden Technical University

“A journey to Mars or other interplanetary destinations will involve several years in space,” comments Tommaso Ghidini, head of ESA’s Structures, Mechanisms and Materials Division, overseeing the project. “The crew will run many risks, and returning home early will not be possible. Carrying enough medical supplies for all possible eventualities would be impossible in the limited space and mass of a spacecraft. Instead, a 3D bioprinting capability will let them respond to medical emergencies as they arise. In the case of burns, for instance, brand new skin could be bioprinted instead of being grafted from elsewhere on the astronaut’s body, doing secondary damage that may not heal easily in the orbital environment. Or in the case of bone fractures – rendered more likely by the weightlessness of space, coupled with the partial 0.38 Earth gravity of Mars – replacement bone could be inserted into injured areas. In all cases the bioprinted material would originate with the astronaut themselves, so there would be no issue with transplant rejection.”

With 3D bioprinting progressing steadily on Earth, this project is the first to adopt it off the planet, explains Tommaso: “It’s a typical pattern we see when promising terrestrial technologies are first harnessed for space, ranging from cameras to microprocessors. More needs to be done with less, to make things work in the challenging space environment, so various elements of the technology get optimised and miniaturised. Similarly, we hope that the work we do with 3D bioprinting will help accelerate its progress on Earth as well, hastening its widespread availability, bringing it to people even sooner.”

Subscribe to our newsletter

Related articles

Bioprinting complex living tissue in seconds

Bioprinting complex living tissue in seconds

Researchers have developed an extremely fast optical method for sculpting complex shapes in stem-cell-laden hydrogels and then vascularizing the resulting tissue.

Silicone-based 3D lattice can improve drug testing

Silicone-based 3D lattice can improve drug testing

Scientists have found the perfect geometry: on a newly developed 3D silicone lattice, human stem cells will grow and behave in the same way as they do inside the human body.

Sugar: Sweet way to 3D print blood vessels

Sugar: Sweet way to 3D print blood vessels

Scientists have developed a way of using laser-sintering of powdered sugars to produce highly detailed structures that mimick the body’s intricate, branching blood vessels in lab-grown tissues.

Researchers successfully bioprint healthy new tissue

Researchers successfully bioprint healthy new tissue

New muscle has successfully been created in mice using a minimally invasive technique dubbed ‘intravital 3D bioprinting’.

Producing human tissue in space

Producing human tissue in space

The University of Zurich has sent adult human stem cells to the International Space Station to explore the production of human tissue in weightlessness.

Can bioprinted stem-cell tissue be used to treat kidney disease?

Can bioprinted stem-cell tissue be used to treat kidney disease?

Researchers have announced a collaboration to 3D bioprint stem-cell tissue that could one day be used to treat end-stage kidney disease.

3D printing of biological tissue

3D printing of biological tissue

Scientists hope we will soon be using 3D-printed biologically functional tissue to replace irreparably damaged tissue in the body.

Ultrasound aligns living cells in bioprinted tissues

Ultrasound aligns living cells in bioprinted tissues

Researchers have developed a technique to improve the characteristics of engineered tissues by using ultrasound to align living cells during the biofabrication process.

Bioprinting artificial blood vessels and organ tissue

Bioprinting artificial blood vessels and organ tissue

Engineers have developed a 3D printing technique that allows for localized control of an object's firmness, opening up new biomedical avenues that could one day include artificial arteries and organ tissue.

Popular articles