Scientists have developed a method to 4D print objects that can be manipulated to take on alternate forms when exposed to changes in temperature, electric current or stress.
Researchers have created a 4D printer capable of constructing patterned surfaces that recreate the complexity of cell surfaces.
Rutgers University have devised a way to integrate microneedles with backward facing barbs, so that microneedle arrays can stay in place as long as needed.
Researchers revolutionised 4D printing by making a 3D fabricated material change its shape and back again repeatedly without electrical components.
Researchers have developed a new method for producing malleable microstructures – for instance, vascular stents that are 40 times smaller than previously possible.