4D printing

3D printing programmable structures from the printer

3D printing programmable structures from the printer

Researchers have developed a new process for producing movable, self-adjusting materials systems with standard 3D-printers.

Using 4D printing to enable spinal fusion

Using 4D printing to enable spinal fusion

4D printing helps create a biomimetic microchannel scaffold made of collagen and hydroxyapatite.

Shape-changing 4D materials hold promise for bioengineering

Shape-changing 4D materials hold promise for bioengineering

New hydrogel-based materials that can change shape in response to psychological stimuli, such as water, could be the next generation of materials used to bioengineer tissues and organs.

3D printed morphing nozzle control fiber orientation

3D printed morphing nozzle control fiber orientation

Researchers have developed a morphing nozzle for additive manufacturing of fiber‐filled composite materials that hold promise for “4D printing” applications.

4D printing soft objects for implants

4D printing soft objects for implants

Scientists have developed a method to 4D print objects that can be manipulated to take on alternate forms when exposed to changes in temperature, electric current or stress.

4D printing may speed development of therapeutics

4D printing may speed development of therapeutics

Researchers have created a 4D printer capable of constructing patterned surfaces that recreate the complexity of cell surfaces.

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